|Collectivism||Critical Thinking and Problem Solving||Individualism|
Collectivistic CulturesExamples: (Africa, China, Japan, Korea, Mexico)
* Interrelated and interdependent with others
* Goals and values that serve the in-group (the family, neighborhood, or community).
* "I am because we are"
* High use of nonverbal cues
"Expanding our knowledge of cultural perspectives enriches our understanding of the complex of traits, skills, habits, values, and abilities that individuals bring to the process of problem solving" (Brenner & Parks, 2001, p. 216).
CULTURE* "How can educators use awareness of good thinking in various cultures to improve all student' thinking and learning" (Brenner & Parks, 2001, p. 216)?
* "What counts as good or effective critical thinking in solving problems or decision making in other cultures" (Brenner & Parks, 2001, p. 216)?
* Critical thinking includes: dispositions, cognitive skills, and metacognitive reflection.
* Within a culture's own context or perspective, what may be accepted as effective critical thinking may not be so in another culture.
ReferenceBrenner, D.F., & Parks, S. (2001). Cultural Influences on Critical Thinking and Problem Solving. In Developing Minds: A Resource Book for Teaching Thinking (pp.216-221). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Individualistic CulturesExamples: (Australia, U.S., Britain, Canada, Germany)
* Autonomous self
* Each person is unique
*Separate from others
* Self-reliance to achieve personal goals
* Individualist's personal goals take priority over the goal of in-groups such as family
* Values direct self-expression
* Speak mind freely
* Achievements are attributed to the individuals own traits and choices, apart from relational or contextual matters